Sedimentology is the classification and interpretation of the origin of sediments and sedimentary rocks.
Stratigraphy is about rock strata.
Oil is in the pores between the sediments sometimes, and that's why anyone cares.
My teacher is a nerd. Here's part of his lecture notes:
How do we learn science?
- I give you information (lectures)
- You assimilate, combine, and synthesize that information via labs and excercises
- You demonstrate that you have assimilated knowledge via a test
- You build on previous knowledge by doing research
- Ideally you ask and answer questions
- What is the question, think Jeopardy
It's in his stupid notes that he made us pay $12 to buy a book of. He spends half of class talking about how he runs every morning and how he plays drums in a rock band. Actually we hear mostly about his running, which quite honestly I don't give a flying fuck about. How would he like it if I stood up and spoke at length about my hobbies. I hate when teachers use the podium as a forum for telling their life story. Just fucking teach.
So, back to the studying.
Weathering. Weathering is when physical and chemical things happen to break up the rocks. It often involves water. Frost wedging, chemical changes, organic processes, climatic changes, gravity all make weathering. If precipitation or relief (difference in lowest elevation and highest elevation) changes (in a region I'm sure), weathering and erosion rates increase. Other types of weathering include salt weathering, thermal weathering (rock expansion and contraction) and release of overburden pressure.
Hydrolysis is when acids break down silicate minerals. Clay minerals can form from this, like smectite, kaolinite, and illite. They smell.
Hydration and dehydration is when water is gained or lost from a mineral. like gypsum to anhydrite or hematite to goethite.
Oxidation is when an electron is lost and oxides and hydroxides form. like pyrite to hematite.
Solution is when soluble minerals dissolve and become ions in solution. Like carbonation.
Ion exchange is when ions trade.
Chelation is when metal ions bond to organic molecules having ring structures.
Mineral stability dictates erosion and chemical breakdown rates. Quartz is very stable. Low-stability minerals can indicate proximity to source.
Olivine is not very stable. Neither is limestone, but it depends on water, so arid and semi-arid environments allow limestone to stick around. Titanium-bearing minerals are most stable. Stability is the opposite of Bowens Reaction series (I'm sure if you're really curious I've written about that in some other studying post.)
So, here's what deposits with which weathering: Physical weathering = sanstones, conglomerates, mudstones. Chemical weathering: Hydrolysis = mudstones and mud matrix; chert, limestones, evaporites. Oxidation = mudstones, mud matrix. Solution = chert, evaporites, limestones.
(I told you this was boring.)
So, physical weathering produces sand, gravel, and mud, and chemical weathering produces mud, chert, and dissolved load.
Sediment - to sink down. Stuff that is deposited by water, wind, ice. Includes shells and evaporites.
Sphericity, Grain shapes (equant, oblate, porlate, bladed), roundness, grain size, grain sorting. Cumulative weight percents.
Ugh. This is so boring. I'll get back to you.